REFERENCE  -  BY TOPICS          Material on this page © The Animal Council 2006 - 2018

National Pet Alliance                                          NEW HOME OF NPA  6/29/08!  
Since 1991, Karen Johnson and the National Pet Alliance conducted and published demographic pet population studies in Santa
Clara and San Diego County with focus on management of feral cats and use of incentive voucher programs to subsidize spay
and neuter.  A new study is being finalized.   Click above link for NPA info & studies.  

State Laws Regulating Breeding of Dogs and cats                NEW 4/3/13, updated 4/11/2019 (MD)

Pet Limit Laws  -  Issues, Policy & Law               UPDATED 7/31/08

Property Status of Animals                                 UPDATED 11/21/09

Population Issues    
San Mateo County POP Information          California Legislation on Animal Population Issues Since 1997, Rev. 2009

NEW 7/15/07 California Council of Companion Animal Advocates (1991-2000) CCCAA was made up or organizations
active in animal care and control, veterinary medicine, the pet industry and animal protection.  It was a diverse group with
differing philosophies setting an example for working together to find solutions for the overpopulation of dogs and cats.  
Council members met quarterly at the
California Veterinary Medical Association headquarters in Sacramento.   CVMA
abandoned this inclusive forum and associated itself with only State Humane Association of California (
SHAC) and the California
Animal Control Directors' Association (
CACDA).  CCCAA had presented 6 Symposia principally addressing "overpopulation"
issues of dogs and cats.  
1991POP-I Report   
1993 POP II Report   1995 POP III Report   1997 POP IV Program Flyer   1999 POP V Program Flyer    2000 POP VI Flyer
A final legacy of CCCAA was this promotional sticker, perhaps an early sign of trouble ahead:                       

Alliance for Contraception in Cats and Dogs (ACC&D) is pursuing safe, effective non-surgical sterilization methods for dogs and
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical Methods of Pet Population Control published material
covers extensive undesirable health and behavioral consequences of surgical sterilization.

NEW 6/30/07
Letter confirming authenticity of DHS-VPHU Reports below.  
Department of Health Services, Veterinary Public Health Unit Shelter Data Reports (cats included from 1995)
1993        NEW 7/29/07  1993 Complete original 4 page report
1995        NEW 7/29/07  1995 Complete original 6-page report
Summary Totals 1995-2005
2006 - DRAFT       Revised 1/29/09    NEW 3/3/09
2007 - revised 1/8/09  NEW 3/3/09
2008 - 7/7/09 DRAFT   NEW HERE 7/8/09     See our 7/10/09 Blog post for history, limitations of these reports.  
August 17, 2009 amended report       August 11, 2010 DRAFT - 2009 report   NEW 9/9/11  "FINAL" 2009 REPORT  
2010  NEW 9/9/11
Current program information      
9/12/11 2011 Declaration of all California "rabies area" & new Local Rabies Control Activities reporting forms & more
2011 Local Animal Control Activities Annual Report  
2012 Report of Local Activities Reporting Form  
2012 Local Animal Control Activities Annual Report  NEW 11/16/13
2013 Local Animal Control Activities Annual Report  NEW 8/16/15  (8 counties not reporting)   
2014 Local Animal Control Activities Annual Report NEW 8/11/17   (see report for non-reporting information)
2015 Local Animal Control Activities Annual Report   NEW 8/11/17
2016 Local Animal Control Activities Annual Report   New 9/10/2019
2017 Local Animal Control Activities Annual Report   New 9/10/2019

This data is collected as part of the California Rabies Control program administered by the Veterinary Public Health Section links
8/10/2017 under state law that mandates dog licensing for the entire state (Health & Safety Code Section 121690 as a rabies
endemic area.)  Note that Food & Agricultural Code provisions do not mandate dog licensing.  Cat licensing is at local option.  
The purpose of state mandated dog licensing is prevention of rabies through rabies vaccination.  Local ordinances may, and
many do, require veterinarians to report rabies vaccination records to ensure compliance with laws .  State or local legislation
creating dis-incentives to canine vaccination is suspect public policy.  California Rabies Reports:  
1950-1994   1990   1991  1992  
1993  1994  1995  1996  1997  1998  1999   2000  2001  2005  1995-2005  NEW 4/11/10  2010 to 4/2/10 (1 dog, Trinity County) 2010
FINAL 2 dogs (1 Trinity, 1 Humboldt)    2009 Year (0 dogs, 0 cats) BOTH Provisional    2008 Final (0 dogs, 1 cat, Humboldt Cty)   
2007 (0 dogs, 1 cat, Trinity Cty)  2006 (Zero dog or cat cases!)  Cumulative reported cases, 1997-2006       
CA Rabies Vaccine Compendium  
CA Rabies Compendium 2012    2011 CA Summary Final  (0 dogs, 0 cats)
2012 Provisional, 1 dog Monterey County, 1 cat, Kern County, 2012;  2012 Rabies Surveillance in California, final rpt.
1/29/13 Rabies case, unvaccinated pet cat, Sonoma County.  11/16/13 Updated, one dog case, details unknown.  2013 Rabies
Surveillance in California, final report: 1 dog (San Mateo County,) 1 cat (Sonoma County,) case histories included.  NEW 8/16/15
2014 N/A    2015 Rabies was confirmed in two cats, consistent with the mean of 1.3 domestic animal rabies cases per year in the
previous ten years, 2005-2014.  
2016 Rabies was confirmed in three dogs and three cats, notably more than the mean of 1.1
domestic animal rabies cases per year in the previous ten years, 2006-2015.  
2017 Rabies was confirmed in three dogs and one
cat, slightly more than the mean of 1.7 domestic animal rabies cases per year in the previous ten years, 2007-2016.
New 9/10/19

NEW 2/12/2016  The Rabies Awareness Website is a project by Merial to rapid access to provide current, validated State-level
laws and regulations on rabies vaccination that directly impact decisions made in private practice.

NEW 6/30/15  Rabies Challenge Fund "This is one of the most important projects in veterinary medicine. It will benefit all dogs by
providing evidence that protection from rabies vaccination lasts at least 5 years, thereby avoiding unnecessary revaccination
with its attendant risk of debilitating adverse reactions."

National Council on Pet Population founded in 1993 consists of animal-related organizations brought together to work on mutual
goals regarding homeless pets.  National Council studies have been published in peer-reviewed journals and legitimize the
field of pet population research, encouraging other scientists to address this issue in their work.  The web site now has the
studies which debunk some of the myths that have led to ill-conceived legislation and is a must-read to for understanding
shelter population issues. 
12/30/11 In the fall of 2010, the National Council was absorbed by one of its members, the Society of Animal Welfare
Administrators (SAWA) which has changed its name to National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy (NCPPSP)
Any future work will have to stand independently of the unique collaboration of the original National Council.

King County, Washington's Ordinance 10423 was the second mandatory spay and neuter/breeding permit law following San
Mateo County and enacted in July 1992.  This 1998 analysis was prepared by Lee Wallot, a Snohomish resident and Collie
Fancier.  Note, her "Animal Legislative Awareness Network, A.L.A.N." pre-dated and has no relationship to a group in Los
Angeles using this name.  
King County 1998 Report

Montgomery County, Maryland Office of Legislative Oversight mandated analysis of the County's 1992 amendments to the
Animal Control Ordinance including breeding permits and high fee differential licensing for dogs and cats.  The 1997 analysis is
significant, because it was done by a County office and recommended returning to the original license fee structure and
eliminating breeding permits.  47 pages.  
Montgomery County Office of Legislative Oversight 1997 Report

The American Kennel Club's Canine Legislation Position Statements:  

CITY OF LOS ANGELES DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL SERVICES information and data extracted from City budget documents:
2004-05 DAS Revenue sources by category
2005-06 DAS Proposed Budget including year to year actual dog licensing, breeder permits, euthanasia & MORE
Department of Animal Services
3rd Quarter FY 2006 Report, including licensing information.
NEW 10/18/06 2006-07 DAS Proposed Budget  Note discrepancies in actual license/permits from prior years.  

NEW 6/16/06 COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES, CHAPTER 10 COUNTY CODE, ANIMALS including the 2006 amendments requiring
mandatory sterilization of all dogs with limited exceptions, including "competition" dog or member of qualifying dog club, and
$60 unaltered permit.  Mandatory microchipping for all dogs.  

NEW 5/4/06  SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, CALIFORNIA a small, coastal county just south of San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties, in 1994
after a long, contentious process,
enacted spay/neuter and breeding restrictions based on issuance of an "unaltered
certificate"  ($15) in addition to a basic dog or cat license.  ($20 altered, $40 unaltered) Current info, at 2011 entry below.    At that
time, the County's animal services with the exception of the City of Watsonville and Town of Capitola, were provided under
contract with the Santa Cruz SPCA.  That contact has been discontinued and animal services provided by the Santa Cruz County
Animal Authority as
Santa Cruz County Animal Services.  In late 2004, the City of Watsonville enacted the County ordinance
followed by the Town of Capitola in 2006.  Updated 4/27/07
2007 UNALTERED CERT. APPLICATION   Additional background, 1994
letter from County Administrator, Susan Mauriello.  Effective July 2009:  new fees and new applications for dog licenses (as of
9/30/09)(now $26 altered, $65 unaltered
dog) - NO CAT LICENSING- and dog/cat unaltered certificates (9/30/09) ($100 one time fee
and $100 re-application fee if moving to a new address.)
*** NOTE: foregoing material is provided for historical context relevant to understanding the evolution of the County programs and
political implications for other jurisdictions. For current (2011) licensing information:
9/8/11 NEW 2011 SANTA CRUZ COUNTY Dog license fees are $70 unaltered ($28 altered), check for senior fees, late fees plus
"Unaltered Animal Certificates (UAC) are required in addition to the license for any unaltered dog 6 months or older. To obtain a
UAC, the dog must have a current license and a letter from a licensed vet on his or her letterhead stating that the vet has
examined the dog within the past year and the owner is following the preventive health care program outlined for the animal.
The cost of this REQUIRED certificate is $100. All new certificates require a facility check by a Santa Cruz County Animal Shelter
animal control officer. An annual health care statement is required to keep the certificate current."   The Department
inadvertently omitted mention of the UAC for cats and is adding this to their website.  
2011 Dog License Application   (provided
for information purposes, courtesy of Santa Cruz County Animal Services)  
1/7/14 The cost of this REQUIRED certificate is NOW
. All new certificates require a facility check by a Santa Cruz County Animal Shelter animal control officer. An annual health
care statement is required to keep the certificate current.  
Separate Unaltered Dog license, $100.  
Current county issues:
12/9/13 Animal Shelter Board of Directors agenda and supporting materials.  
Note:  If you need Santa Cruz County documents for compliance purposes, please check for the latest updates at    http:/www.   (New URL)  or telephone (831) 454-7209

MANDATORY SPAY/NEUTER LITIGATION  9/30/06  ATHENS, OHIO has repealed its 2004 ordinance mandating sterilization of all
dogs and cats over 6 months of age prior to transfer.  The lawsuit filed in March 2005 by Petland challenging the ordinance had
been set for trial in October, and adverse holding could have threatened other MSN ordinances according to an article in the
Athens News.  A new ordinance of undetermined content is expected.  This had been the first legal challenge to a MSN
ordinance in the United States.  The City of Los Angeles 2008 MSN ordinance was unsuccessfully challenged but held to be a
valid exercise of the City's police power.  
CDOC et al. v City of Los Angeles (2011)  Also see ACF v Sun, a challenge to the 2006
County of Los Angeles MSN ordinance dismissed without leave to amend by a federal trial court.     


CALIFORNIA Government Law - is important in understanding and challenging improper restraints on the public
right to know and participate in legislative and related proceedings and exercise First Amendment rights at the local (Ralph M.
Brown Act) or state (Bagley-Keene Act Open Meeting Act) levels and the Public Records Act.   For complete legal information,
references and assistance:
Californians Aware
9/15/09 update The California First Amendment Coalition has changed its name to First Amendment Coalition (FAC) to reflect its
expanded scope of national and international activity beyond California, which remains a top priority according to Executive
Director Peter Scheer.  
California Anti-Slapp Project   2009  A federal anti-slapp bill is underdevelopment.  
CALIFORNIA LAW - Sales - Sellers must know the law applicable to sales or other transfers of dogs and cats - both
state and local.   Following are California state provisions.   NEW 9/11/06

NEW 8/11/07 CALIFORNIA BOARD OF EQUALIZATION as of August 2007 is demanding Seller's Permits for collecting and remitting
state sales tax for sellers of more than 2 pet or non-food animals in a 12- month period as detailed in a new publication
and Selling Dogs, Cats and other Non-food Animals.  (Publication 122, Revised 2018)  Be sure to telephone the BOE at 800-400-
7115 for all questions and application information.   
4/8/08 BOS April 4, 2008 generic "Dear Pet Association" letter to educate pet
Revised 7/27/19

NEW 8/11/07

Pet Dealers - means a person engaging in the business of selling dogs or cats, or both, at retail, and by virtue of the sales of
dogs and cats is required to possess a permit pursuant to Section 6066 of the Revenue and Taxation Code.  For purposes of
this article, the separate sales of dogs or cats from a single litter shall constitute only one sale under Section 6019 of the
Revenue and Taxation Code.  This definition does not apply to breeders of dogs regulated pursuant to Article 1 (commencing
with Section 122045...)
Lockyer-Polanco-Farr Pet Protection Act

Dog Breeders - "dog breeder," or "breeder" means a person, firm, partnership, corporation, or other association that has
sold, transferred, or given away all or part of three or more litters or 20 or more dogs during the preceding 12 months that were
bred and reared on the premises of the person, firm, partnership, corporation, or other association.   
Polanco-Lockyer Pet
Breeder Warranty Act

All Dog Sellers of dogs sold as registrable MUST provide the statutory disclosure form AND post a conspicuous notice in at
least 100 point type.  
Rosenthal dog pedigree disclosure statute

All Dog Sellers (except Dealers, shelters, 501(c)(3)s) - Sales of dogs under 8 weeks (compensation and transfer of custody)
requires prior written authorization of veterinarian licensed in California.  
Penal Code Sec. 597z

New 1/4/07 Dog Tethering prohibitions (criminal offenses) effective 1/1/07, Health & Safety Code Sec. 122335

New 1/10/07 Animals in vehicles, California Penal Code Section 597.7 enacted by SB 1806 in 2006, effective 1/1/07creates a
state criminal offense based on "No person shall leave or confine an animal in any unattended motor vehicle
under conditions
endanger the health or well-being of an animal due to heat, cold, lack of adequate ventilation, or lack of food or water, or
other circumstances that could reasonably be expected to cause suffering, disability, or death to the animal."  The media have been
incorrectly that this totally prohibits leaving animals in vehicles, but many people believe this.  The consequences of a state
penal code violation, particularly a second offense, are serious and warrant taking considered preventive measures to avoid
confrontations with citizens or law enforcement.  Print some copies of the law and keep these in your vehicle.  Monitor
temperatures inside and out carefully.  Carry a readable thermometer in the vehicle and a camera/recording device.  Select
replacement vehicles for privacy and cooling features.  
NEW 1/30/2016  AB 797 enacted in 2016, effective 1/1/2017   
provides in Civil Code Section 43.100, civil immunity from liability for damage to a vehicle from which a person rescues an
animal from a vehicle if the rescuer complies with 6 requirements set forth in Penal Code Section 597.7(b)(2) that relieves from
criminal liability a person whose actions are taken reasonably and in good faith and meets all 6 requirements.  This law is new;
there is no enforcement experience for rescuers or vehicle or animal owners.  
STUDY GUIDE:  CALIFORNIA LAW – 2016 AB 797, Right to Rescue Animals from Vehicles, Effective 1/1/17
REFERENCE:  California Law:  Animals in Vehicles – 2017     

New 12/31/16  California Pet Boarding Facilities, effective 1/1/17, enacted by 2016 SB 945 Health and Safety Code Sections
122380-122388 based on a threshold definition and criminal offenses punishable by fines, correctable on first violations unless
animal is harmed, local enforcement only concurrent with all other laws.
REFERENCE - CALIFORNIA LAW:  Pet Boarding Facilities

New 2/22/07  Civil Damages   California has "strict liability" for dog bites.   Criminal provisions, dog attacks.  

New 7/15/07 CALIFORNIA VETERINARY PRACTICE is governed by the California Veterinary Medicine Practice Act
and administered by the
California Veterinary Medical Board, an agency within the Department of Consumer Affairs (DCA).  The
VMB promulgates rules under its statutory authority, licenses veterinarians and veterinary premises, registers veterinary
technicians, receives and investigates complaints about licensees and registrants and administers the disciplinary process
and mandatory continuing education for licensees.  The Veterinary Medical Board and the Registered Veterinary Technician
Committee regularly hold meetings open the public.  The California Veterinary Medical Association (
CVMA) is a voluntary trade
association representing the profession.   

In early 2003, the City of West Hollywood (LA County) enacted an ordinance prohibiting anyone, licensed veterinarian or
otherwise from declawing a cat.  The VMB obtained a
legal opinion from the DCA legal office stating that state law preempts the
field of veterinary practice.  CVMA filed a lawsuit seeking declaratory and injunctive relief against WeHo, both filed cross
motions for summary judgment which the trial court granted in favor of CVMA.
WeHo appealed, and the Second District Court of Appeal has
reversed and ordered the trial court to reverse and grant WeHo's
motion for summary judgment.  CMVA's web site has announced its intention to file a Petition for Review by the California
Supreme Court due to the extensive ramifications of this decision on the entire medical field.  
10/14/07 The California Supreme
Court on October 10 denied CVMA's petition for review.  WeHo is announcing intention to begin enforcement.  [Note: A
September 25, 2007 opinion of the Commonwealth of Virginia Attorney General issued an
official advisory opinion that a similar
ordinance there did exceed local government authority based on Virginia Dillon Rule.]  

new 4/23/2019  
PET INSURANCE is now a financial planning tool to help manage the cost of veterinary care and warrants legal
protection for rights of insured as consumers, see California Insurance Code DIVISION 2. CLASSES OF INSURANCE [1880 -
12880.5] -
PART 9. Pet Insurance [12880 - 12880.5]  ( Part 9 added by Stats. 2014, Ch. 896, Sec. 1. )

6/11/2015 AVMA links revised  ELECTRONIC IDENTIFICATION OF ANIMALS utilizes emerging technology
combined with managed databases to identify individual animals.  
American Veterinary Medical Association policy, "The
Objectives and Key Elements Needed for Effective Electronic Identification of Companion Animals, Birds, and Equids (Approved
by the Executive Board November 2005, revised April 2006)" reviews the complex, practical issues underlying the "microchip"
concept.  AVMA Statement on Microchipping responding to reports of links between microchips cancer in dogs and laboratory
animals is now included in the revised Backgrounder.
  AVMA Microchip FAQs  AVMA "Backgrounder: Microchipping of
Animals"  6/10/2015 As more manufacturers market their own microchips, not all chips now have identification that make them
easily trackable to any registration source even if the animal owner has enrolled the identifying information with databases.  
American Animal Hospital Association has a Universal Microchip Lookup that enables anyone to enter a chip number and
search all registries where the individual chip has been registered.  

New 1/5/18  SERVICE ANIMALS Three California Penal Code sections prohibit denial of access, intentional interference
without legal justification and knowing and fraudulent representation, i.e. "fake" service dogs. 2018
Effective January 1, 2018, the statutory authority for the Board and regulation of guide dogs for the blind was repealed and
replaced with
Business & Professions Code Sections 7200-7202, 3 provisions covering guide dog instructors.  
New 12/3/18  Institutional policies must be developed and maintained to protect the rights of service and support animal users,
the welfare of these animals and competing interests of others, for example,
Stanford University that covers students,
employees, visitors and physical facilities.
New 12/1/2019 In a California case, JOEY MILLER v. FORTUNE COMMERCIAL CORPORATION in the Court of Appeal, Second
District, Division 1, reviewed the law applicable to whether a service dog "in training" but not yet fully trained qualified as a
service dog for purposes of access to a food store under several claims and decided under the facts of this case, the dog did
not qualify. However, the court suggests that a showing of 1) visiting the place for the purpose of training; 2) ability to train a
service animal to respond a person having the user's specific disability; 3) a person authorized by his education or experience
to train service animals including those that can respond to the user's disability might qualify. This had been an appeal from the
trial court's summary judgment for the defendant. When case was originally filed in 2012, the plaintiff had appealed the court's
denial of an injunction. That September 23, 2014 decision is unpublished and briefer, September 23, 2014:
CALIFORNIA ACCESS SIGNAGE: SERVICE ANIMALS/DOGS & PETS a new review of signage being used by California facilities to
restrict user access to
only guide, signal and service dogs as provided under current California laws.

New 1/4/08  VETERINARY ISSUES IN STERILIZATION OF DOGS have become a public policy concern as
activists promote mandatory sterilization of privately owned dogs of all ages and backgrounds without regard to the patient's
medical needs as determined within a veterinary-client relationship, or even how that determination is made in the absence of
an acute illness.  As an emerging issue, the professional literature is just beginning to address these concerns.  A new article
by Margaret V. Root Kustritz, DVM, PhD, DACT,  
"Determining the optimal age for gonadectomy of dogs and cats", Journal of the
American Veterinary Medical Association, December 1, 2007, Vol. 231, No. 11, Pages 1665-1675 is now available for public access
at the AVMA website.  
7/22/2019 AVMA policy now, "The AVMA does not support regulations or legislation mandating spay-neuter of
privately owned, non-shelter dogs and cats.​"

5/15/14  Neutering Dogs: Effects on Joint Disorders and Cancers in Golden Retrievers, February 2013  

7/20/14  Evaluation of the risk and age of onset of cancer and behavioral disorders in gonectomized Vizslas.
JAMVA, Vol 244, No 3, February 1, 2014.  

Long-Term Health Effects of Neutering Dogs: Comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers
Hart BL, Hart LA, Thigpen AP, Willits NH,
published July 14, 2014.   

5/26/2016  Hart, B. L., Hart, L. A., Thigpen, A. P. and Willits, N. H. (2016), Neutering of German Shepherd Dogs: associated joint
disorders, cancers and urinary incontinence. Veterinary Medicine and Scienc. doi: 10.1002/vms3.34
Published online, May 16, 2016  

12/12/2016  Gonadectomy effects on the risk of immune disorders in the dog: a retrospective study.  Crystal R. Sundburg,
Janelle M. Belanger, Danika L. Bannasch, Thomas R. Famula and Anita M. Oberbauer    Sundburg et al. BMC Veterinary Research
(2016) 12:278 DOI 10.1186/s12917-016-0911-5  Published online December  8, 2016  

6/2/2017  Correlation of neuter status and expression of heritable disorders.  Janelle M. Belanger, Thomas P. Bellumori, Danika
L. Bannasch, Thomas R. Famula and Anita M. Oberbauer. Canine Genetics and Epidemiology 2017.

5/9/2018  Behavioural risks in male dogs with minimal lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones may complicate population-control
benefits of desexing.  Paul D. McGreevy,  Bethany Wilson,  Melissa J. Starling,  James A. Serpell. PLoS ONE, 5/2/18   

11/21/2018 Neuter status as a risk factor for canine intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) in dachshunds: a retrospective cohort
study Canine Genetics and Epidemiology, 2018, Volume 5, Number 1, Page 1 Marianne Dorn, Ian J. Seath

7/25/2019  Age at gonadectomy and risk of overweight/obesity and orthopedic injury in a cohort of Golden Retrievers,
Melissa Simpson, Sharon Albright, Barbara Wolfe, Erin Searfoss, Katie Street, Kelly Diehl, Rodney Page.  Published: July 17, 2019

12/9/2019  Behavioural risks in female dogs with minimal lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones, Melissa Starling, Anne Fawcett,
Bethany Wilson, James Serpell, Paul McGreevy.  PLOS  Published: December 5, 2019

8/17/2020  Assisting Decision-Making on Age of Neutering for Mixed Breed Dogs of Five Weight Categories: Associated Joint
Disorders and Cancers, Benjamin L. Hart, Lynette A. Hart, Abigail P. Thigpen and Neil H. Willits. Front. Vet. Sci., 31 July 2020

AVMA's handy
calculator to estimate pet population based on community population.   Revised link, 5/15/14